Business Amalgamation

Business Amalgamation

Amalgamation is the process of combining two or more entities, typically organizations or companies, to form a new, larger entity. In business, an amalgamation can take the form of a merger, where two companies of roughly equal size and strength come together to form a new entity, or an acquisition, where one company purchases and absorbs another. The goal of an amalgamation is often to increase efficiency, reduce costs, and gain a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Amalgamation can also refer to the process of mixing or combining different materials or substances, such as metals, to create a new, composite material with improved properties.

Business amalgamation
Business amalgamation

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What are the types of Amalgamation?

There are two types of amalgamation:

Amalgamation as a merger: This type of amalgamation takes place when two or more companies combine to form a new company. The original companies cease to exist and a new company is created in their place. The new company takes over all the assets and liabilities of the amalgamating companies, and the shareholders of the original companies become shareholders of the new company in proportion to their shareholding in the original companies.

Amalgamation as a  purchase: This type of amalgamation takes place when one company purchases the assets and liabilities of another company. The purchasing company may pay for the assets and liabilities of the other company by issuing its shares or by paying cash or a combination of both. In this type of amalgamation, the purchasing company continues to exist while the other company ceases to exist. The shareholders of the other company may either receive shares in the purchasing company or cash in exchange for their shares in the other company.

What are the rules of amalgamation?

The rules of amalgamation vary depending on the jurisdiction and the specific laws that apply to the entities involved in the amalgamation. However, in general, the following are some of the key rules that govern amalgamation:

Approval of shareholders: The amalgamation must be approved by the shareholders of the companies involved in the amalgamation. The level of shareholder approval required may vary depending on the laws of the relevant jurisdiction.

Approval of regulatory authorities: In many cases, regulatory authorities such as the competition regulator or securities regulator may need to approve the amalgamation.

Valuation of assets and liabilities: The assets and liabilities of the companies involved in the amalgamation must be valued to determine the terms of the amalgamation, including the share exchange ratio or the purchase price.

Treatment of employees: The rights and obligations of employees of the companies involved in the amalgamation must be addressed, including any potential redundancies or changes to employment contracts.

Treatment of creditors: The rights and obligations of creditors of the companies involved in the amalgamation must be addressed, including any potential changes to the terms of existing debts.

Filing and registration: The amalgamation must be properly documented and filed with the relevant authorities, and any necessary registrations must be completed.

It is important to note that the rules of amalgamation can be complex, and legal advice should be sought before proceeding with an amalgamation.

Amalgamated companies in Pakistan as well as in the world

There have been many amalgamated companies in Pakistan and around the world. Here are some examples:

Pakistan: In Pakistan, there have been many examples of amalgamated companies in various sectors, including banking, telecommunications, and energy. One notable example is the merger of Mobilink and Warid, two of Pakistan's largest mobile network operators, which created Pakistan's largest mobile network operator with over 50 million subscribers.

World: In the world, there have been many notable amalgamated companies in various sectors. Some examples include the merger of Dow Chemical and DuPont, which created one of the world's largest chemical companies, and the merger of Exxon and Mobil, which created ExxonMobil, one of the world's largest oil and gas companies.

Other examples of amalgamated companies include

  • The merger of Citicorp and Travelers Group created Citigroup, one of the world's largest financial services companies.
  • The merger of Daimler-Benz and Chrysler Corporation created DaimlerChrysler, a multinational automotive corporation.
  • The merger of Time Warner and AOL created AOL Time Warner, a media and entertainment company.
  • The merger of Glaxo Welcome and SmithKline Beecham created GlaxoSmithKline, a pharmaceutical company.
  • The merger of Air France and KLM created Air France-KLM, one of the world's largest airline companies.

M.A Jinnah

As an Editor-in-Chief of, my role is to supervise the website’s content creation, management, and publication process.

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